It is a natural state
The term "Hypnosis" is proposed by Baron Hénin de Cuvilliers in 1819. This term will be quickly popularized by James Braid in 1843 in his first book on the subject: Neuro-hypnosis
While chemical anesthetics, such as chloroform, were emerging In France, began what we would later be named the golden age of hypnosis (1882 to 1892). Ten-year confrontation of two conceptual schools and of the rise of the majority of current psychoanalytic therapeutic trends from Behaviorism through Mentalism and Neurolinguistic Programming.
Yet, what is now called "hypnosis" has existed since the dawn of time.
• A cuneiform manuscript described 6000 years ago, in Mesopotamia, about cures obtained due to the Modified States of Consciousness.
• A stele discovered by Muses in 1972 and dating from the Egypt of Ramses II, 20th dynasty, describes a session of "hypnosis".
• A manuscript discovered in Egypt in the 3rd century (translated and published by Emil Brugsch in 1893) reports the existence of "temples of sleep" where priests whispered to their slumbered patients, offering them "sweet words of healing."
• As for Socrates, and his "terpnos logos" he evokes customs of care and rituals that advocate the power of "healing with words"
(Needless to mention that) even before being baptized as such, hypnosis was already widely used on the battlefield. James Esdaile, a young surgeon from Calcutta, performed more than 200 procedures in seven years: amputations, abdominal tumors, mammectomy, kidney stones.
He describes his experiments in a work that will appear in 1852 almost simultaneously with the appearance of nitrous oxide followed closely by Chloroform, henceforth evading the hypnosis of emergencies.
In fact, the first dispute that agitates this nascent hypnosis is the joint or separate use of magnetism and suggestion. The school of Nancy prevailed on this matter with the highlighting of the major role of the spoken word.
Furthermore, nowadays, the "dissociation" of consciousness’’ through hypnotical anesthesia is forever impressive.
Heart operations under hypnosis | Medium to large
Despite all the efforts made and the memorable age of this state of hypnosis, it is still as complex if not impossible to give it a clinical definition. Therefore, the question is perhaps poorly formulated or too restrictive.
Tracks to understanding
Researchers A. Vanhaudenhuyse, S.Laureys and M.E. Faymonville mention in a 2013 study published in Liège, Belgium:
"Different studies have shown a change in brain activity at the internal network level (self-awareness) and external network (environmental awareness). In addition, the brain mechanisms that underlie the modulation of pain perception under hypnosis include such areas as anterior and anterior cingulate cortex, basal ganglia and thalamus. Combined with local anesthesia and conscious sedation in patients undergoing surgery, hypnosis is also associated with perioperative and postoperative improvement in the comfort of patients and surgeons. Finally, hypnosis can be considered as a useful tool to create symptoms of conversion and dissociation in healthy subjects, which makes it possible to better characterize these disorders by mimicking similar clinical observations. "2
A small percentage of chemical anesthesia sometimes occurs but only to induce a faster receptive state. It is clear that hypnosis has a real effect and that this effect seems to be reduced to a "mental absence".
But how can simple words have such a great strength?
It is essential to change your point of view. Far from being an altered state of induced consciousness. Hypnosis is a normal state of the human being, just like sleep, sport, attention to work or any other diurnal or nocturnal period.
Currently, the most accurate definition of hypnosis is: the brain's ability to adhere to a suggested imaginary.
To grasp this "definition" it is enough to think about what happens when you are immersed in a movie, a videogame or an exciting reading, when you drive for a long time or wander the streets, randomly. We are no longer mentally present. Are we then in a hypnotical state?
The most relevant experience is reported in an article in the journal Brains & Psycho 2010 which deals precisely with embracing this concept. The article is by Yannick Bressan Doctor of Human Sciences at the University Paris X Nanterre, who is also a researcher in cognitive science and director. To sum up the experience to which he refers, it is difficult not to mention him in its continuity:
“The context of theater can serve as a model for studying the psychology of adherence to a fiction. With the neurologist Marie-Noëlle Metz-Lutz, at the laboratory of imaging and cognitive neuroscience LINC, FRE 3289 UDS / CNRS of the civil hospital of Strasbourg, and with the assistance of the national theater of Strasbourg, we wanted to approach the question of adherence to a mental representation during a pilot experiment combining cognitive neuroscience, theater studies and philosophy. It was about observing what is happening in our head and in our body when we adhere to a fiction. In scientific terms: highlight the neural and physiological correlates of adhesion.
So we decided to move the theater to the lab: an actor plays on a stage while the participants in the experiment attend the room from inside the scanner located in the next room, through headphones and glasses equipped with reflecting mirrors that allow one to see, in supine position, the video screen located at the bottom of the scanner. Thanks to this device, it is possible to observe what is happening in their brain at different key moments of the show.
This theatrical performance was conceived to study how the adherence to a fiction takes place. How did we proceed? During a first rehearsal of the play in a closed-in session, the director chooses the moments when to intervene on the actor’s part, notably by scenic indications, for example the actor’s movements and motions, his voice intonation or a particular intention attached to the tone of voice or a look, or the use of lighting. The scientific team thus had a show "" by scenic landmarks that allowed it to anticipate changes in the state of mind of the studied spectators and to observe if physiological changes (the heartbeat, for example) or neurobiological (brain activity) occurred in association with these changes”
The results of this experiment are unequivocal. In 80% of the moments prepared by the director, the brain activity of volunteers changed. Researchers noted an activation of empathy networks, but also of those who interpret metaphors (one of the major tools in hypnotherapy in particular) the thoughts and emotions of others - a capacity designated as the theory of the mind. In addition, subjects generally see their heart rate slow down which shows the influence of the parasympathetic nervous system, this soothing response is typical of the relaxation that precedes hypnosis. This relaxation stage was even proposed by American neurologist; Salomon Diamond in 2008 as a quantitative measure of hypnotic depth. Let’s recall that the state of hypnosis favors the implantation of new representations. What happens in this experience leads to think that the viewer naturally falls into an altered state of consciousness. This type of modification during hypnosis and in vegetative or anesthetic states was also observed in 2004 by the Belgian neurologist Steven Laureys just as in sleep as demonstrated in 1977 by neurologist Pierre Marquet of Liège.
“The tilting moments in which one adheres to a fiction, where one perceives it as a reality, seem to also correspond to the cerebral plane solely to the variability of the cardiac rhythm - to a state of consciousness close to hypnosis.”
Adhering to a fiction dissociates us from our perception of the surrounding physical world; which facilitates the projection towards another reality. Bressan uses the word<<eclipse of consciousness>> as a formulation close to the hypnotic state to describe the moment of tilting. In an instant this eclipse would change the way of being in reality and open wide the doors of the imagination. An imaginary that, according to Patrick Verstichel, a neurologist at the Créteil Intercommunal Centre, is such a strong expression that it must be counterbalanced constantly by the brain.
Hypnosis, an everyday life tool
There are differences between a person under hypnosis living a real "adventure" in real-time (live) from a person wearing a virtual reality helmet who immerses himself in a prefabricated world. This difference seems to stem specifically from the non-participation of the body in virtual immersion. So much so that, since 2018, we have added to several video games seats that transmit movements and vibrations to the body. For the future we are moving towards multi-sensation combinations (EX: Futurism)
But, in hypnotic immersion, the brain arranges and uses all stored sensory stimuli and comparisons. No equipment is involved, and the result is superior.
Gradually a certainty is needed. With all these absences wanted or not, it becomes obvious that we can spend several hours a day in a dissociated state, while being able to react to our environment. In fact, we ourselves induce this state of hypnosis which seems so natural to the human that it accepts it, without flinching, and that it even finds deep pleasure and complete inner freedom.
The most fabulous thing in history is that there is no need for a trance, no "sleep" or other special condition. The brain remains conscious but, in a way, changes its consciousness of place and henceforth, it sees and accepts "something else" while remaining connected to the current reality. So, if hypnosis is a natural state that we practice instinctively, why does it seem so exceptional and so external to us?
In reality, this particular state of the human being is related to its "animal" nature and belongs to an almost unconscious behavior. This state makes it possible to perform amazing feats and to alter the majority of the senses "transient blindness, memory impairment, etc. Even with full awareness and opened eyes, this is what mainly feeds stage hypnosis.
For this purpose, Robert Teunisse of the University of Nijmegen in the Netherlands or Dominic Ffytche and Robert Howard of the London Institute of Psychiatry observed complex detailed and realistic hallucinations quite similar to what we get under hypnosis via specific suggestions. These are apparitions of objects, the observation of natural scenes, parade of characters of all sizes, costume, colors and moving decor. The neurologist Patrick Verstichel specifies a very important point for us:
“The team of D. Ffytche showed that during hallucinations certain brain regions are abnormally activated. These are visual areas involved in recognizing certain complex shapes, movements, faces or even colors. These areas located in the occipital lobe and the lower temporal lobe are most likely involved also in normal subjects during their retrieval of certain visual information. Everything happens as if, when the visual stimuli are reduced or altered by an ocular anomaly, these brain regions deprived of enough information from the outside began to develop mental images at the origin of the hallucinations.”
As part of an imaginative session and visualization under hypnosis, or even a suggested game, the brain will "invent, create and construct" a perfectly coherent artificial reality, capable of awakening sensations and emotions perfectly real .
Karl Priham and the holographic brain Professor Standford and neurophysiologist Karl Pribram [See Karl H. Pribram, Brain and Behavior, Penguin Books, Hammond-Sworth, 1969). are convinced of the holographic nature of reality.
In this way, Pribram's theory explains how the human brain can store so many memories (and complex, precise memories) in so little space (and be able to recall them at will, associate them, etc.).
For the record, it has been estimated that the human brain has the capacity to retain something in the order of 10 billion "particles" of information for the duration of an average life, roughly the same amount information contained in five collections of Encyclopedia Britannica. This simply means that we do not currently know the limits of the memory of the human brain (hence the interest of studies on geniuses of memory, such as gifted autistics)
However, holograms have an astonishing ability to store information: simply by changing the angle of one of the two lasers that strike a part of the photographic film, it is possible to record many different images on the screen. same surface. It has been demonstrated that a cubic centimeter of film (holographic) can hold 10 billion particles of information. This is where the anecdote becomes a coincidence ...
Pribram's theory has found support in other neurophysiologists, such as Argentinian-Italian researcher Hugo Zucarelli. The latter extended the holographic model to the world of acoustic phenomena as they could be received and analyzed by the brain.
Perplexed by the fact that people could place the source of sound without moving their head, even if they only had the hearing of an ear (3), Zucarelli discovered that holographic principles could explain this ability. Zucarelli has also developed holophonic sound technology, a recording system capable of reproducing acoustic situations with exceptional realism.
Pribram's theory is that our intelligence constructs the "true" reality by taking into account the origin of the frequency domain. His theory has received many experimental supports since its conception. It was found that each of our senses is sensitive to a much wider range of frequencies than hitherto suspected. Researchers have discovered, for example, that our visual systems are sensitive to sound frequencies, that our sense of smell depends on what is commonly called "cosmic rays" (frequencies coming from the cosmos), and that even the Our body cells are sensitive to a wide range of frequencies.
Such discoveries suggest that it is only in the holographic field of consciousness that such frequencies can be sorted and transformed into conventional perceptions.
Attempt to partial conclusion
In this hypothesis holographic hypnosis could be registered without any difficulty as the tool of choice to change plots of perception by changing the angle of reality (and not mirrors) to allow us to see the world differently to the point of considering "elsewhere imaginary " as real.
3. It is usually accepted that both ears are used to locate the sound, the brain taking into account the time the sound takes to reach the second ear. The particular shape of the pavilion also makes it possible to modify the perception of the sound and thus to situate it. Experiences. Zucarelli show that the brain can do without it. The ears are therefore only the materialization of a non-material faculty.
Alain J. Marillac
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